In this global framework, the WaSAf project will focus on the three urban centres (Dakar in Senegal, Abidjan in Ivory Coast and Kampala/Jinja in Uganda) that are already using or planning to use surface water resources to supply drinking water at the same time for food production system (cage farming).
These three cities share a very high population growth and consequently an increase in their demand for safe water. In order to respond to this demand, three water treatment plants have been constructed in Lac de Guiers located 240 km north of the city. In Abidjan, underground water was used until yet for the water supply of people living on the city but due to the increase of the population and due to the fact that the underground resource is already fully exploited, stakeholders are looking for surface water sources for the production of drinking water. Finally for Kampala city, the increasing demand for potable water has resulted to the construction of three water treatment plants on the Lake Victoria, a fourth plant being soon constructed. When looking at the ecological status of these three ecosystems (Lac de Guiers, Murchison Bay and Napoleon Gulf (Lake Victoria) and Aghien lagoon), it appears that they have experienced a decrease in their water quality in the 20 past years as illustrated for example by the occurrence of recurrent cyanobacterial blooms in each of them. These could be exacerbated by pressure from farmers (nutrients, phytosanitary measures) and/or urban related water consumption (domestic and storm water effluents, industrial waste). The three cases for each country have very different geographical and institutional contexts which will enrich the parallel work in the four sites proposed.
The overall goal is to evaluate the ecological status of Murchison Bay, Napoleon Gulf and Katosi ecosystems and the trends in the evolution of their status over the next years; to implement long term monitoring programs on these resources; to evaluate the pressures acting on them and how these pressures have impacted on the water quality and to prepare actions for their protection and/or their restoration.
i.Assess the ecological status and water quality in Murchison, Napoleon and Katosi and analysis of the pressures acting on the water quality and ecological functioning of these sites
ii. Review available literature (both in environmental and social sciences) on Lake Victoria (academic works and others) to identify all data already available on the water quality status of Lake Victoria in academic laboratories and data produced by stakeholders
iii. Identify the main pressures acting on the targeted sites, in particular on the origin of pollutants (organic and inorganic nutrients, pesticides…) in Murchison Bay, Napoleon Gulf and Katosi
iv. Evaluate the consequences of increase or decrease in concentrations of some pollutant elements on the water quality and the ecological functioning of Murchison Bay; Napoleon Gulf and Katosi
v. Dissemination of the immediate findings to various stakeholders.
1. Update of the knowledge on the ecological status and the water quality of the three sites in Lake Victoria-Uganda (Murchison Bay; Napoleon Gulf and Katosi);
2. An analysis on trends in the evolution of the water quality and ecosystem functioning established on the basis of experimental approaches and on the assessment of the polluting pressures and their impacts on these ecosystems;
3. The establishment of a complete and operational long term surveillance program including
(i) the identification of the tools and of the strategy for this monitoring,
(ii) the identification of people that will be in charge of this monitoring and the formation of these people, and
(iii) the definition of the storage of the collected data in database dedicated to that;
4. Preparation to put in place water resource conservation measures and protection of the catchment areas in question, based on stakeholders identification to be involved in this process as well as analyzing usages and local conflicts;
5. The continuous sensitization of lakeside communities, water users and local actors in general, through various focus group discussions (local steering committees, discussion platforms) but also sensitizing the youth on the need to protect water resources (in schools);
6. Implementation of long-term water quality monitoring programme in Murchison Bay; Napoleon Gulf and Katosi including risk assessment linked to cyanotoxins in water and fish.
7. Adoption of actions for the protection and restoration of the ecological status of majorly Murchison Bay and Napoleon Gulf by the various stakeholders using these resources together
8. Comparative analysis of the strength and weaknesses of the governance in the water sector first in Uganda and within the three African Countries then proposition of alternative schemes of governance
9. Proposal and implementation of the first policy measures aiming at protecting Murchison Bay; Napoleon Gulf and Katosi.
.The ecological status and the water quality of Murchison Bay, Napoleon Gulf and NWSC abstraction points
• Presentations of findings, expert reports etc to target stakeholder.
• Synthesised bibliographic review of cyanobacteria dominance in Lake Victoria; factors associated with their dynamics and the blooms
• Trends in the evolution of water quality and ecosystem functioning based on experimental approaches and assessment of the polluting pressures and their impacts on Murchison Bay and Napoleon Gulf ecosystems
• Potential control of microcystins and biomagnifications in selected macro-organisms